Iron is a vital component of hemoglobin that supplies oxygen to the body in different tissues. Life and iron are inseparable: except for lactic acid bacteria, every living organism needs iron as an essential element of growth and multiplication. Iron deficiency is the most widespread nutritional problem in the world.
Free ionic iron barely exists in the body. All intracellular iron or hemoglobin or ferritin is in iron storage protein.
There is no mechanism that would make iron unnecessary selection1 The exact mechanism and control of iron absorption is not clear.
The mucous membrane is the major site for iron absorption. Small intestinal iron absorption occurs by diffusion. The amount of absorbed iron in normal humans is 1% to 5% of eating iron by radioactive isotope
Due to the multitude of factors influencing vasodilation, it can not be valid Estimated iron absorption meal. The absorption changes with food, the higher the rice-based diet and the lower the millet. Sprouting and baking increases absorption while decreasing with tannic acid, tea, tamarin, phytate and cereals. Food analysis reveals significant tannins in cereals, pulses, soybeans and spices such as tamarind, turmeric, and chili. Soybean absorption increases when it is taken with meat or vitamins. The longer heating of the meal reduces the vitamin C content and thus the absorption of iron. The amino acid cysteine enhances the absorption of iron from vegetables, animal foods and iron salts.
Meat and liver waters get better absorbed than eggs and leafy vegetables. For food of animal origin, the absorption of iron is on average from 7% to 22% of ferritin, 11% of fish and 13% of the liver. Animal protein in beef, pork, chicken or fish (but not egg and milk) increases the absorption of non-heme iron from plant sources. In the rice-based diet, iron absorption increases by adding 40 grams of fish.
In the cereal diet, iron absorption is reduced as phosphate and phytates precipitate ionized iron. Soy protein is a major inhibitor of iron absorption due to its phytate content.4 Fibers on wheat and corn reduce the absorption of iron. Tea and coffee do not dissolve, which is not absorbed. Widespread use of coconut milk in Thailand and South India to inhibit iron absorption
Iron absorption with iron deficiency anemia, low plasma levels, increased red blood cell activity in bone marrow, pancreas and women. For normal people, iron absorption is more common after menstruation, pregnancy, puberty and blood loss. Iron absorption increases when the hardware is stored out of stock.
Inorganic iron and ferric salts are all absorbed, but the iron skeleton is better absorbed. There is no difference between the absorption of cheap acid sulphate and the more expensive slow-release iron tablets. Hemoglobin iron neutralizes the hem cells at neutral pH and does not affect dietary phosphate or phytate. Gastric acid maintains the solubility of inorganic iron, which promotes the formation of small molecules with ascorbic acid Citrate, fructose and amino acids. Citrate and ascorbate are more easily absorbed while tannic acid (tea tannic acid), phytate and phosphate are less absorbed. Vitamin C reduces iron-iron to iron. It even dissolves at neutral pH and is better absorbed. Even if nutrition is bad in iron, vitamin C supplementation increases the absorption of iron with each meal. Vitamin C in divided doses increases the iron absorption more than each meal as with a large portion of the breakfast.
Calcium inhibits iron absorption. Radio-iron absorption studies in human volunteers show reduced absorption against cimetidine and antacids
PLASMA IRON: – Normal plasma iron is 60-160 micrograms per 100 ml (10, 74-28.6 μmol / l); The total plasma iron binding capacity (TIBC) is 280-400 micrograms per 100 ml (50.1-71.6 micromol / l) of which about one third is generally saturated.
Iron binding proteins include transferrin (Siderophilin), lactoferrin (Milk, tears, saliva, ears, salivary glands and cervical mucus) and desferrioxamine (fungal product). The mucous transferrin binds iron in the lumen of the intestine to reach the gut tract of the intestinal mucosa. The plasma transferrin carries protein and binds two iron atoms; It has a half-life of 8 days, but varies widely, because the risk of an injury alone stimulates the formation of transferrin. Whole iron jar is 3-5 g (54-90 mmol), Most of which is hemoglobin. The storage sites are liver, spleen and bone marrow where iron is stored in ferritin or hemosiderin
Ferritin from the reticuloendothelial tissue of the liver, spleen and bone marrow is a spherical storage iron protein that binds up to 4,000 molecules per molecule a. 24 subgroups were arranged in a cluster like a raspberry and 20% iron. Ferritin is a soluble, easily movable fraction of the storage vessel; Estimating with radioimmunoassay helps you diagnose iron deficiency or overload. This estimate is cheaper than serum iron and TIBC. Normal values range from 12 to 250 micrograms per liter; The value below 10 micrograms / liter indicates iron deficiency
One microgram serum is equivalent to 80 mg (1.4 mmol) of storage iron per liter. The reservoir was about 980 mg (17.5 mmol) normal men and 450 mg (8 mmol) in women. For iron overload the values are higher; In the case of acute hepatic impairment, the release of ferritin gives abnormally high values.
The structure of hemosiderin is not well known, but it is believed to be a ferritin degradation product. Hemoseidine iron is not released.
Desferrioxamine is a chelating agent that binds and drains the urine in the urine. Iron urine selection is therefore easy to measure and this method is used to estimate iron stores. The injection of desferrioxamine in patients with reduced iron disease results in a decrease in urine discharge
Transferrin is mainly glycoprotein synthesized in the liver. It is able to bind two iron-iron molecules and is responsible for the total serum binding capacity of 250-370 micrograms per 100 ml.
The absorbed iron is strongly bound to protein. The small emptying which is done by demolition of the inner shell of the digestive tract (ovulation of the mucous membrane epithelium) can not be properly evaluated. Iron in the chair is usually not absorbed by eating iron; There are some ironers with the liver. Cleansing your skin in the hot, humid climate of the tropics increases your iron loss by sweating. Venous loss is negligible
A woman loses iron in her reproductive life: (i) she loses 30 to 60 ml of blood during each menstrual cycle, which means a monthly loss of 15 to 30 Mg (269-537 micromol) of iron; (Ii) during maternal, placenta and excretion during pregnancy, the mother exceeded 500 mg (9 mmol) of iron to increase daily absorption of 2 mg daily (36 micromoles); And (iii) there is another 1.5 mg (27 micromol) iron loss during the lactation period. Due to such losses, women – even in the western countries – have low iron stores.
Anemia is the most common and widespread nutritional problem. The vast majority of cases are the consequence of iron loss. Worldwide, 2.15 billion people are anemic or iron-deficient.
Iron is also utilized by the brain. Iron absorption is maximum for fast fetal growth of the fetus 15 Iron deficiency infants are below mental and physical development. Iron intervention can reverse these delays.
Post-cricoid web is often associated with iron deficiency; When he was following these developing crabs in this region. Decline in intestinal disaccharide levels occurs in iron deficiency anemia;
Serum ferritin radioimmunoassay is the most reliable iron deficiency blood test.
Source by Subodh Jain